Who is Mussolini ?
Mussolini was the Prime Minister of Italy for twenty-one years from 1922 until 1943, and he is considered a central figure in the existence of fascism and was considered an influence and ally of Adolf Hitler at the same time, and in 1943, Mussolini was replaced as Prime Minister, and he served as President of the Italian Social Republic until Executed by Italian soldiers in 1945.
Benito Mussolini was born in Predappio, on July 29, 1883, in Predappio, a small village above Verano di Costa in northern Italy. His father was Alessandro, who was a blacksmith and socialist who was a monopolist and cynic of religion, and his mother, Rosa, who was a schoolteacher. Catholic primary school, and Mussolini had a brother named Arnaldo and a sister named Edvig, and during his upbringing Mussolini was a naughty child and disobeyed the orders of his parents, and he was quick to anger, so he was expelled twice from school for assaulting his fellow students with a penknife.
Despite all the troubles he caused at school, Mussolini managed to get a certificate and, surprisingly enough, after that he worked for a short time as a teacher.
Mussolini was looking for better job opportunities, so Mussolini moved to Switzerland in July 1902. In Switzerland, Mussolini worked a number of odd jobs and spent his evenings attending local meetings of the Socialist Party. One of those jobs was working as a publicity agent for the builders' union, and from here Mussolini took over A very aggressive stance, and he often called for violence, and called for a general strike to bring about the desired change. This led to his being arrested several times.
Between his turbulent work in the union during the day, and his many speeches and discussions with socialists at night, Mussolini quickly built a name for himself in socialist circles and began writing and editing a number of socialist newspapers. In 1904, Mussolini returned to Italy to serve the requirements of conscription in Italy. In 1909, he lived for a short time in Austria and worked in the trade union, and wrote for a socialist newspaper, and his attacks on militarism and nationalism led to his expulsion from Austria, so he returned again to Italy.
Mussolini continued to promote socialism and develop his skills as an orator. He was strong and confident of himself, and despite the error often in the facts he was presenting, his speeches were always persuasive, and his views and skills during speeches soon led to the attention of his fellow socialists. On December 1, 1912, Mussolini began working as an editor for an Italian socialist newspaper.
In 1914, after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinald, followed a series of events that culminated in the beginning of World War I. After the Italian government declared that it would remain completely neutral in 1914, Mussolini began using his position as editor-in-chief of the newspaper Avanti and urged his fellow socialists to support The government maintained its neutral position on the war, but soon his views changed and he became a supporter of Italy's entry into the war and wrote many articles and editorials that led to his official expulsion from the Socialist Party.
Mussolini's role in World War I:
In 1915, Italy declared war on Austria, officially joining World War I, and Mussolini was then summoned to serve in Milan. During his service, his military unit was experimenting with a war weapon and it exploded, seriously injuring Mussolini, but he soon recovered from it.
Mussolini and Fascism:
After the First World War, Mussolini became undoubtedly anti-socialist, and began to call for a strong central government in Italy. Mussolini was also called for the need for a dictator to lead this government. Mussolini was not the only one who wanted change, as many wanted it because after the First World War, Italy became in Chaos and people were looking for a way to make Italy strong again.
A wave of nationalism began to sweep Italy, and many people began to form local, small, national groups. On March 23, 1919, Mussolini personally gathered these groups into one national organization under his leadership. Mussolini called this new group the Fascist Party.
March to Rome:
In the late summer of 1922, the Fascist party made a punitive march through the provinces of Ravenna, Forlì, and Ferrara in northern Italy. It was a night of terror, as the march burned the headquarters and homes of every member of the socialist and communist organizations alike.
By September of 1922, the Fascist Party controlled most of northern Italy, after which Mussolini wanted to stage a coup against the Italian capital, Rome. Bad and the lack of sufficient weapons for it, but this step confused King Victor Emmanuel III, which made Mussolini receive an offer from the king to form a coalition government, and indeed Mussolini agreed, and he assumed the position of Prime Minister in Italy.
And after the elections were held, in which Mussolini took control of all the seats in Parliament to appoint himself "leader" of Italy, precisely on January 3, 1925, with the support of the majority of his fascism, Mussolini declared himself dictator of Italy, and he succeeded in that and for ten years, Italy flourished in peace However, Mussolini was determined to turn Italy into an empire and to do this, Italy needed a colony, so, in October 1935, he decided to invade Ethiopia. Mussolini on his empire.
Mussolini and Hitler:
Of all the countries in Europe, Germany was the only country that supported Mussolini's attack on Ethiopia. At that time, Germany was being led by Adolf Hitler, who had formed his own fascist organization, the National Socialist German Workers' Party known as the Nazi Party. Hitler admired Mussolini, unlike Mussolini who initially hated Hitler. However, Hitler continued to support Mussolini, and this eventually led Mussolini to enter into an alliance with Hitler.
This alliance led to Mussolini issuing an ethnic statement towards the Jews. In 1938, Mussolini stripped Jews of their Italian citizenship, removed Jews from government, education, and jobs, and banned intermarriage. Italy was following in the footsteps of Nazi Germany. On May 22, 1939, Mussolini entered into The so-called Pact of Steel with Adolf Hitler, and this pact was binding the two countries in the event of war, and war was already coming.
Mussolini's Big Mistakes in World War II:
On June 10, 1940, after Germany saw decisive victories in Poland and later France, Mussolini issued a declaration of war on France and Britain, and it was clear from the start, that he was not a partner with Hitler - Mussolini was not satisfied with this, but Mussolini quickly became frustrated. From all the successes achieved by Hitler and also from the fact that Hitler kept most of the war plans a secret even to Mussolini, until Mussolini began searching for a way to simulate Hitler's achievements without letting Hitler know his plans, so Mussolini ordered an attack against the British in Egypt in September 1940.
After the initial successes, the offensive stopped and German forces were sent to reinforce the deteriorating Italian positions. Mussolini was embarrassed by the failure of his armies in Egypt, so Mussolini, against Hitler's advice, attacked Greece on October 28, 1940. Six weeks later, this attack also stopped, was defeated, and forced Mussolini asked the German dictator for help. On April 6, 1941, Germany invaded both Yugoslavia and Greece. Hitler defeated the two countries mercilessly and saved Mussolini from defeat.
Italy turns against Mussolini:
Despite Nazi Germany's stunning victories in the early years of World War II, circumstances eventually turned against Germany and Italy. By the summer of 1943, with Germany bogged down in a war of attrition with Russia, Allied forces began bombing Rome, and here the Italian Fascist Council turned. against Mussolini.
Here they met and decided that the king should appeal Mussolini's constitutional powers. Mussolini was arrested and sent to the mountain resort of Campo Imperatore in Abruzzo. On September 12, 1943, Mussolini was rescued from prison with German help. Mussolini was transported to Munich, where he met Hitler shortly thereafter. Ten days later, by order of Hitler, Mussolini was installed as president of the Italian Social Republic in northern Italy, which remained under German control.
On April 27, 1945, with Italy and Germany on the brink of defeat, Mussolini attempted to flee to Spain. While on his way to Switzerland to board a plane, Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were captured by Italian warriors and shot to death. The body of Mussolini and Petacchi to Loreto Square in Italy on April 29, 1945, Mussolini's body was dumped on the road and the people of the neighborhood mutilated his body.
Later, the bodies of Mussolini and Petacci were hung upside down, side by side, in front of a refueling station. Mussolini was initially buried anonymously in the Muscovite Cemetery in Milan, after which the Italian government allowed Mussolini's remains to be reinterred in the family crypt near Verano di Costa in 31. August 1957.